Wednesday, 19 November 2014

TITLE –“ TARGET TRACKING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS”

TITLE –“ TARGET TRACKING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS” INTRODUCTION Wireless communication and MEMS - the two technologies which have revolutionalized the way we live have also resulted in the development of wireless sensor networks. These comprise of relatively inexpensive sensor nodes capable of collecting, processing, storing and transferring information from one node to another. These nodes are able to autonomously form a network through which sensor readings can be propagated. Since the sensor nodes have some intelligence, data can be processed as it flows through the network. The latter is being done wirelessly these days using networking principles. The flexibility of installation and configuration has greatly improved resulting in a flurry of research activities commencing in the field of sensor networks owing to their ready acceptance in various industries such as security, telecommunications and automobile to name a few. By early next century, sensor integration, coupled with unceasing electronic miniaturization, will make it possible to produce extremely inexpensive sensing devices. These devices will be able to monitor a wide variety of ambient conditions: temperature, pressure, humidity, soil makeup, vehicular movement, noise levels, lighting conditions, the presence or absence of certain kinds of objects, mechanical stress levels on attached objects and so on. These devices will also be equipped with significant processing, memory and wireless communication capabilities. Emerging low-level and low-power wireless communication protocols will enable us to network these sensors. This capability will add a new dimension to the capabilities of sensors: Sensors will be able to coordinate amongst themselves on a higher-level sensing task (e.g., reporting, with greater accuracy than possible with a single sensor, the exact speed, direction, size, and other characteristics of an approaching vehicle). OBJECTIVE The problem being tackled here relates to the problem of target tracking in wireless sensor networks. It is a specific problem in localization. Localization primarily refers to the detection of spatial coordinates of a node or an object. Target tracking deals with finding spatial coordinates of a moving object and being able to track its movements. METHODOLOGY A location Tracking Protocol in which the tracking is done by the coordination of sensors. A network of sensors in a 2D plane is considered. A triangular network is considered i.e. the sensors are placed in a triangular fashion. Typically, the network is considered as a hexagonal mesh. Each sensor is aware of its physical location and that of its neighboring sensors. All the sensors have a processor, a memory and required hardware to support sensing, information gathering and communication capabilities. Each sensor has a sensing radius, r which is equal to the length of the side of the triangle. Three sensors are used to determine the location of the object. The methodology used in this case is the triangulation technique of detecting the spatial coordinates. The sensors in this case are assumed to have different sensing radii. POSSIBLE FINDINGS Applications of target tracking and/or data fusion are found in diverse civilian and military fields. Civilian applications include air traffic control, navigation, fault tolerant systems and decision problems. In the military field, applications include surveillance, target identification, command and control, sensor management and weapon guidance. The target tracking problem is widely researched due to its increasing applications in security industry due to heightened concerns about the safety of men and material in present day world. In order to keep a check on movements of suspicious people and their activities, we have to employ video monitoring and surveillance and tracking systems.

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